The flap appeared to begin with a screed that a columnist unleashed in the July 27 issue of the newspaper Radikal. Mine G. Kirikkanat, a very white Turk, began by writing about how proud she was of Istanbul's shiny international airport, which "lights up Turkey's 'non-Arab' face."Man, if that ain't a rallying cry, I don't know what is. TWATVU-Turkish Women Against Terrorism, Violence and Ugly people.
But the drive into the city, she wrote, was something else. In the parks along the shore road toward town, "men in their underwear rest ruminating, women wearing black chadors or headscarves all are fanning the barbecue. . . . This view is repeated every 10 meters square, our dark people cooking meat by the sea that they turn their [behinds] toward."
"Carnivore Islamistan," the columnist dubbed the scene, capturing in a brutal phrase the major fault line of class and politics in modern Turkey.
If the kebab is the staple food of Anatolia, the white Turks native to Istanbul prefer sea bass, bluefish and other delicate catches of the two seas that bracket the city and the Bosporus Strait in between. And this, too, has caused consternation.
"We are Ataturk's women!" shouted Mine Okcugil, 38, clasping the hand of the woman in the chaise longue next to her at Caddebostan. Her own bikini was in danger of falling off her front. She works at the Agriculture Ministry.
"We are all modern women of the republic," said Semra Aydemir, 52, a retired teacher, also in a tiny two-piece. "We are against terrorism. We are against violence. We are against ugliness."
So it is that men and women roaming the beach in T-shirts reading "Security" keep an eye peeled not only for men wearing too little but for women wearing too much. Female beach-goers no longer are allowed to wade with their legs covered by flowing fabric.
Iran succeeded Wednesday in getting Interpol to cancel international wanted notices for 12 Iranians sought by Argentina in the 1994 bombing of a Jewish community center, police sources said.(a glass of pomegranate juice to Khorshid)
Argentine judicial authorities called the decision a blow to their investigation of the Buenos Aires attack, which killed 85 people, the country's deadliest.
At its annual conference in Berlin, world police body Interpol conducted a ballot of delegates on rescinding the "red notices" arising from the attack.
"In favor of Iran, all the red notices have been canceled," an Iranian delegate said.
Two other sources independently confirmed the outcome.
Argentina and Israel lay responsibility for the bombing on Hezbollah guerrillas backed by Iran, but Tehran repeatedly has denied involvement.
Interpol suspended the 12 notices requested by Argentina after Iran complained about irregularities, citing corruption allegations against the judge involved.
Argentina was seeking reinstatement of the notices.
Argentine court officials said removal of the alerts, which means countries are no longer obliged to publish the arrest warrants, made it unlikely the suspects would ever be brought in for questioning.
Eugenics became popular due to the support of many different public leaders and interest groups, argues Stern. People like J.H. Kellogg, a thoracic surgeon and sanitarium owner, and Victor Vaughan, former dean of the University of Michigan's Medical School, were driven by the idea that eugenics would be linked with humanitarianism. They believed they could help poor people by sterilizing them while simultaneously helping the human race eliminate "bad genes" from its gene pool. The eugenics movement was also popular among animal breeders, who believed that if one could produce a pedigreed pig, one could also produce a pedigreed baby.
Kellogg, the inventor of the corn flake, is best known for developing innovative strategies to improve the diets of the poor. Yet he also supported the sterilization of the "unfit" and in 1911 established the influential Race Betterment Foundation with money from the Kellogg cereal fortune.
In 1914 Kellogg organized the first of three major national conferences on race betterment in Battle Creek. Amid an atmosphere of lavish banquets, he called for biological action in scientific research. Addressing the conference, Kellogg said: "We have wonderful horses, cows and pigs. Why would we not have a new and improved race of men?" He wanted the "whiter races of Europe to establish a Race of Human Thoroughbreds."
After a failed bill in 1897, the Michigan Legislature passed a sterilization law in 1913. With both Kellogg and Vaughan on the state board of health, Michigan became the seventh state to enact sterilization laws. Only one operation was performed before the practice was declared unconstitutional in 1918. After adding legal safeguards, and buoyed by the rising popularity of eugenics, however, Michigan passed a new and more carefully designed sterilization law in 1923.
In 1927, the U.S Supreme Court upheld Virginia's forced sterilization law. The case in question centered around a 17-year-old girl who'd been diagnosed "feeble-minded." Summing up the popularity the eugenics enjoyed at the time, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote, "Three generations of imbeciles are enough."
Soon thereafter, hundreds of Michigan residents who had been labeled "feeble-minded," "mentally defective" or "sexually deviant" were sterilized at the Lapeer State Home and Training School, the Ionia Reformatory, Jackson State Prison, at the University of Michigan hospital, and at other county and state facilities. The historical record indicates that sterilizations peaked in Michigan during the 1930s and 1940s, and diminished steadily during the 1950s and 1960s.